Most Common Causes of Infertility

Most Common Causes of Infertility

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Infertility is a common condition all over the world. This condition occurs in men and women of all ages and there are several specific causes as well as a combination of causes responsible for this condition. Couples who have had no luck conceiving naturally may eventually seek the expert services of a top infertility clinic in India. Often the very first step in treating infertility to find out what is causing it. Here are some of the most common causes of infertility.

Abnormal Motility, Sperm Count & Shape

Sperm morphology is denoted by the shape and size of a sperm. It is one of three main factors, apart from sperm count and motility that are taken into consideration during a semen analysis. Sperms ideally should be paddle-shaped headed, oval with a long tail. The best sperm often is the one that finds and penetrates the egg. Sperm have to be willing to make some movement to get to an egg to fertilize it and be strong enough to penetrate it. For a good chance at fertility, over 40% of a man’s sperm should be active swimmers. Anything lower than that may be a cause for infertility.


Each month, a woman’s body prepares itself for pregnancy. The endometrium, which is the inner lining of a woman’s uterus, thickens, swells, and gets filled with red blood cells until a single egg is released by one of her ovaries. Without a sperm to fertilize the egg, this lining is shed by the uterus and what results is a period. This process happens every month.

The thickening and swelling of the lining is taken care of by the specialized endometrial cells in the uterus. If uterine tissue ends up in the bowel or the lining of the pelvis, it may cause several problems as they bleed and grow, thereby inflaming and scarring delicate places. They may also lead to painful bowel movements, painful periods, painful sex and also, in infertility.


Around 40% of infertile men are said to be suffering from varicoceles. This condition refers to varicose veins in a man’s scrotum. In varicoceles, blockages occur in the veins in the spermatic cord which are responsible for allowing blood flow to the testicles. This eventually leads to compromised or painful sperm production. This condition may be alleviated by surgery or a procedure known as varicocele embolization, which is becoming increasingly popular as opposed to surgery, as it doesn’t require any incisions in the scrotum or general anaesthesia.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

To be able to conceive naturally, egg production in a woman must be adequate. A follicle in the ovary produces an egg, which is then released into the fallopian tube. However, in women who suffer from polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS, a hormonal imbalance tends to disrupt this process. Instead of maturing, the eggs in the follicle turn into cysts and no egg is released, thereby hampering fertility.

Blockage or Damage to the Fallopian Tubes

Sometimes, STDs can make you infertile. Common STDS such as Gonorrhoea or chlamydia may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which results in bacteria getting access to the cervix and reproductive organs. This bacteria tends to scar the fallopian tubes, thereby compromising the process of egg and sperm meeting. It may also cause the egg to get stuck in the fallopian tube instead of travelling to the uterus, thereby resulting in what is known as an ectopic pregnancy.

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